Signaling Circuitry



1. Two negative regulatory pathways (orange and cyan) and one positive regulatory pathway (green). Dotted lines indicate minor pathways.

2. The NPR1-dependent negative regulation of SA biosynthesis has been removed from the model (blue).

3. As the signal transduction pathway connecting the avr/R gene interaction with PCD is not established, it has been lumped into one term called "Triggering factor(s)"

Here is a black and white published version of the circuitry pdf tif jpeg


1.        Shapiro, A.D. and Zhang, C. (2001) The Role of NDR1 in Avirulence Gene-Directed Signaling and Control of Programmed Cell Death in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 127: 1089-1101.

2.        Shapiro, A. D. (2000) Using Arabidopsis Mutants to Delineate Disease Resistance Signaling Pathways. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 22: 199-216.

3.        Zhang, C. and Shapiro, A.D. (2002) Two Pathways Act in an Additive Rather than Obligatorily Synergistic Fashion to Induce Systemic Acquired Resistance and PR Gene Expression. BioMedCentral Plant Biology 2:9.

4.        Shapiro, A.D. and Gutsche, A.T. (2003) Capillary Electrophoresis-Based Profiling and Quantitation of Total Salicylic Acid and Related Phenolics for Analysis of Early Signaling in Arabidopsis Disease Resistance. Analytical Biochemistry: In press.

5.        Zhang, C., Czymmek, K.J. and Shapiro, A.D. (2003) Nitric Oxide Production Does Not Function in Early Programmed Cell Death Events but May Contribute to Cell-To-Cell Signaling Governing Progression of the Arabidopsis Hypersensitive Response. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions: In press.

6.        Zhang, C., Gutsche, A.T. and Shapiro, A.D. Feedback Control of the Arabidopsis Hypersensitive Response. Submitted.